Security risks of forming Salafi government of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" in the era of the fourth industrial revolution

Seyyed Muhammadreza Mottaghi*, Seyyedeh Somayyeh Mottaghi**

Abstract

Salafi currents (Salafists) believe in the formation of a society and government such as “Al-salaf al-salih” society and government and they reject the alterations in governance and social relations in the last 1400 years or so. Also, they presume that one of Muslims’ duties is to return to those rules and regulations. Although the majority of these movements believe these cases in the field of humanities, they not only allow the use of modern advanced and development tools but even invest in their development for their purposes. While “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan” is one of this opinion’s children and they determine a local definition to return to “Al-salaf al-Salih” but the same creator and proximity to Salafi- terrorist groups including “Al-Qaede”, “Haqqani network” and etc. make it possible to create a safe global base for Salafi terrorist groups; The importance of this issue increases when it can predict the potential for serious threats to global security due to the advancement of technology and the proximity of this government to China as one of the two sides of this field, the existence of financial capital, furthermore industrial universities and relatively well-equipped laboratories in this land (due to 20 years of NATO and other countries); The danger which in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, with the spread of artificial intelligence, self-driving cars and, even cyborgs, etc., will be much wider than before.

This essay through descriptive-analytics method intends to warn of these risks and threats and suggests and examines the need to create a global coalition to deal with it.

Keywords

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, Salafi Jihadist, Deobandi Movement, Taliban, Haqqani Network, Al Qaeda, Fourth Industrial Revolution

Introduction

There are various definitions of terrorism that have not been comprehensive and many countries have not reached a consensus on it. In general, it can be said that terrorism is defined that a set of violent or intimidating activities against civilians which is carried out for various political, economic, ideological, etc. purposes. [1]In this regard, various human rights organizations and different countries, according to their definitions, publish lists of terrorist groups periodically and so far, about 250 organizations and groups have been included in the lists which the four Salafi jihadist groups "Taliban[2]", "Pakistani Taliban[3]", "Haqqani Network[4]" and "Al-Qaeda[5]" are basically in many of these lists; The four groups that have played a major role in the recent conversion in Afghanistan and the consequent formation of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan".

At first glance, it may seem that these alterations were only related to this country and it seemed that the international community, with its various commitments or even its involvement in politics, would prevent the recurrence of its terrorist acts similar to those of 9/11 but a more serious concern stems from the widespread changes in technology and the growing spread of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, as well as the equipping of Afghanistan with many of these tools in the last twenty years, in addition, the opening of various industrial universities in the country with Specialized laboratories. Along with that , the tacit support of a powerful country like China, which is in close competition with the West (especially the United States) to achieve its goals and is a seriously one of the technology hubs of the world and ultimately increasing the class gap between rich and poor countries, the restriction of the areas of activity of Salafi groups in other countries, in contrast, the sudden rise to power of one of these groups in Afghanistan, can create a crisis which beyond imagination and expectation. A crisis which could seriously endangers global lives and capital and makes Afghanistan a hub for training and exporting technological terrorists around the world.

Accordingly, this study intends to warn of these irreversible events before they occur and to call the attention of the international community to this issue.

Considering these cases, on the eve of the formation of a government supported by terrorist groups, the plan of this study is to introduce briefly the main groups supporting the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan through descriptive-analytics method, then to warn of the dangers that may arise by these groups by introducing the possible facilities available of the fourth industrial revolution. Finally, some solutions to this serious risk are presented and evaluated.

A. The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and its origin

For a better realizing of the ruling class in Afghanistan, one must look at the concept and branches of Salafi Islam; A reading of Islam that is source of many Islamic terrorist groups.

I. Salafi Islam and all kinds of attitudes towards it

Salafi also often referred to with the honorific expression of "al-salaf al-ṣāliḥ" are often taken to be the first three generations of Muslims who are known as the Sahabah[6], the Tabi‘un[7] and the Taba Tabi‘in[8]. This group of Muslims believes any developments and alterations after this period are considered heresy in religion and cause problems for Islamic societies and even the world. [9]

The followers of this idea consider the first three generations of Muslims as their role models and consider the return to society and governance of these three generations as their goals. They assume any changes in this social way of life " bidʻah (heresy[10])" and reject it; Even its emphasis by individuals causes them to leave Islam and is considered a factor in their excommunication[11].

In contemporary history, at least three types of Salafism can be distinguished, which consists of these three parts:

  1. Traditional Salafism

The most prominent scientific figure of this group can be considered "Ibn Taymiyyah" and the most important follower of it is "Wahhabism" of Saudi Arabia. They have only considered it their duty to form a government and promote their ideas in the field of Islamic land. Also, they do not consider it their duty to spread Islam in non-Muslim countries or to fight polytheism worldwide. These groups believe that the method of governing society and government, both in form and in nature, must be designed like the period of Salaf Saleh and Leaving this method is against Islam But they do not prohibit the use of technical tools and technologies and modern science[12].

  1. Reformist Salafi

Two of the most prominent scientific figures in the group are “Sayyid Jamal al-Din al-Assadabadi” and “Muhammad Abdu”. The reformist Salafis emphasize the return of Islamic thought to its pure essence, that is, following the Qur'an and Sunnah, rejecting the restrictive interpretations of freedom (created during the Abbasid caliphate) and preserving the unity of the Islamic Ummah. They reject imitation and try to show the compatibility of Islam with new knowledge and science. The most prominent groups inspired by this movement are the “Muslim Brotherhood” in Egypt and the “Justice and Development Party” in Turkey. Unlike the aforementioned group, this group, in the realm of nature, considered the necessity of turning the Islamic society into the model of the period Al-salaf al-Salih but they consider that on the one hand, modern technical tools and technologies, and on the other hand, the form of society and government must follow the requirements of the time.[13]

c. Salafi-Jihadism

The most prominent scientific figure of this group can be considered “Muhammad Qutb”.Unlike traditional Salafism, these groups have considered it their duty to oppose polytheism all over the world. In addition, unlike reformist Salafism, they do not believe in peaceful means to achieve their goals. On the other hand, they believe that the transcendent society is a community where is in the form and nature of a "Al-salaf al-Salih" society and every Muslim has a duty to work to create and expand this society and they can also use violent means to achieve the goal. Not only does this group not prohibit the use of modern technical tools and technologies, but they even expand and reproduce them in the direction of their goals, making their use obligatory, but in their personal lives they think about this part like traditional Salafis .[14] Significant groups in this category are al-Qaeda and ISIS. The theoretical roots of the production and spread of this view, regardless of the various economic, political and social crises in Islamic countries or the crises of immigrant Muslims, are the propaganda and teachings that are being published by the school and “Darul Uloom Deobandi.

  1. Deobandi School and Movement

In the 19th century, at the same time as India was under British rule, “Shah Waliullah Dehlawi”, inspired by the ideas of “Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi”, founded a school in the village of “Deoband” where became known as "Darul Uloom Deoband" Due to its establishment in this village. Valiullah Dehlawi believed that the reason why Britain dominated India is a deviation from the Salafi tradition and ignoring the Balsif jihad (armed uprising).So he established “Darul Uloom Deobandi” with the aim of promoting the way of life of the companions of the prophet and Muslims of the first three centuries AH and jihad with colonialism. The ideological and doctrinal foundations of Deobandi schools have been jihad against oppressive rulers, denial of intercession from non-gods, belief in a council for resolving the leadership of society (not the people's vote), opposition to Shiites, countering Western aggression and strengthening anti-colonialism (Anti-imperialism) spirit [15].

Prominent jihadi students at the institute and its affiliates (such as Darul Uloom Haqqani) include “Mullah Omar”, the former Amir al-Mu'minin (leader) of Afghanistan during the war with the United States, “Mullah Akhtar Muhammad”, a former Taliban leader in charge of various oprations against NATO forces in Afghanistan, “ Jalaluddin Haqqani”, Former Haqqani Network leader who was the government's liaison with al-Qaeda liaison with al-Qaeda and he assassinated Prime Minister “Benazir Bhutto”; “Sirajuddin Haqqani”, son of Jalaluddin Haqqani, the military deputy leader of Taliban, current head of the Haqqani Network and Minister of Interior of the Islamic Emirate and "Hebatullah Akhundzadeh" the current leader of the Taliban.

The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and its allies

Now, according to the explanations given, we can determine and mention the three main groups that support the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan which all three of these groups are Salafi based on this classification. The placement of these groups in the first category (traditional Salafi) or the third category (jihadi Salafi) is debatable.

The three main groups are the Afghan Taliban, the Haqqani Network and informally al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. There is no doubt that the last two groups are in the category of Salafi jihadist but Putting the Taliban in the first or third group of Salafis needs further investigation.

Haqqani Network

The Haqqani Network is a militant group in the border areas of Afghanistan and. The leaders of this network are from the "Zadran" tribe, which is one of the Pashtun tribes living in Paktika province(valayat).

The allied Taliban group was founded by Maulvi Jalaluddin Haqqani and played an important role in running the affairs during the Taliban regime. Simultaneously with the US invasion of Afghanistan, The group declared jihad against NATO. U.S. officials have described the Haqqani network as "a family of criminals and cross-border smugglers" and as "the deadliest insurgent group in Afghanistan."

The Haqqani network is one of the main reasons for the strained relations between Pakistan and the United States. The United States has accused the premier intelligence agency of Pakistan, known as “Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), of widespread support for the Haqqani network. the United States is offering a reward for information leading to the capture of their leader, Sirajuddin Haqqani, in the amount of $5,000,000.

Important Note, Jalaluddin Haqqani first met in the 1980s with “Osama bin Laden”, Who later became the leader of al-Qaeda, as he sought an ally in the Persian Gulf. NCTC Guidelines describes Haqqani as one of his “closest mentors” during the years of the formation of al-Qaeda. Crimes attributed to this group include two suicide attacks in 2008 and 2009 against the Indian embassy in Kabul (70 people killed) and an attack on the Continental Hotel in Kabul in 2011[16].

I. Al-Qaeda

Al-Qaeda is an international military and Salafi jihadist organization that was founded during the Soviet war in Afghanistan in 1988 by Saudi billionaire Osama bin Laden to fight the Soviets in Peshawar. This organization operates in the form of various transnational military networks and as an Islamic movement, and its goal is to fight against the influence and interference of non-Muslims on the Islamic world and the spread of Islam in the world [17]. Al-Qaeda has carried out numerous attacks on military and civilian targets in various countries which the 9/11 attacks were the most significant, hitting the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, in response to which the United States launched a war on terror by invading Afghanistan.

Unlike the ethnic-backed Haqqani network and the Taliban, al-Qaeda is not affiliated with any particular ethnic group or country and it has declared its goal to "combat against the enemies of God" everywhere in the world. Also it carries out the operations in line with "the realization of God's rule on earth"[18].

Taliban

The Taliban is a group of militants graduating from Darul Uloom Deoband. The group has been involved in the war in Afghanistan since its inception in 1994. Most of the Taliban are Pashtuns living in northwestern Pakistan on both sides of the Durand Line.

On October 10th of 1994, at the height of the Afghan civil war, the group's core entered the Spin Boldak area of ​​Kandahar province (valayat) in southern Afghanistan and they called themselves the “Cram Tlbay Islamic Movement”. Among the Taliban leaders were Wahhabi Arabs from Saudi Arabia. They quickly gained many followers in Afghanistan and Pakistan with Islamic religious slogans such as "Jihad with polytheism and infidelity" and that "whoever is killed will go to paradise." [19]

The Taliban and their allies committed massacres of Afghan civilians between 1996 and 2001, during their rule in Afghanistan. They prevented the United Nations from providing food for 160,000 hungry civilians and with the policy of scorched earth; they burned large areas of fertile land and destroyed tens of thousands of homes.

Between 1996 and 2001, the Taliban government confronted radio, television, the Internet, some modern medical treatments, bank ATMs, mobile phones, and any technology that could be abandoned without harming the jihad and were enumerating all these cases from the manifestations of the West[20].

To date, the Taliban (like the traditional Salafis) have made major efforts to gain control of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and have made no attempt to expand the government to countries in the region or around the world but But the group's close ties to the Haqqani network, and consequently al-Qaeda, increase the possibility of establishing a hub for terrorist groups. This event can be posed both a threat to Afghan citizens, a threat to the region and a concern for global security.

Now, considering the roots and groups affiliated with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, logically the question arises whether the dangers and threats of this government are greater than the first round of its establishment and their rule in Afghanistan in 1996 to 2001? risks and threats such as the assassination of Afghan opposition figures such as Ahmad Shah Massoud, the assassination of political and religious figures in neighboring countries, the 9/11 attacks in the United States and etc. The answer to this question, regardless of the new experiences of these groups in the field of politics and jihad, will make it possible in the light of extensive technological developments in the last two decades, which can be referred to as the "Fourth Industrial Revolution."

B. The Fourth Industrial Revolution and its Dangers Due to the Existence of a Salafi Jihadist Government

The Industrial Revolution is one of the great alterations in human life that has been overshadowing the world today and its phenomenal effects can be seen in all aspects of life. Meanwhile, a group of Historians in the field of history of industry in their divisions still consider this process current and divide the different eras of this revolution into several periods. According to one of the divisions that is highly regarded in the world today and its creator is "Klaus Schwab[21]", this revolution is identified in the form of four periods. The first industrial revolution (1760-1900) was associated with the invention of the steam engine and the textile and iron industry. The Second Industrial Revolution (1900 until the beginning of World War I), was realized with the invention of the electricity, oil and steel industries. The Third Industrial Revolution or the Digital Revolution and Globalization (after the end of World War II until around 2015) begins with the invention of the transistor. Then the PC, the Internet and information and communication technologies were invented. Finally, the fourth industrial revolution (from about 2016 onwards) which is associated with the emergence of new technologies in areas such as robotics, artificial intelligence, block chain, nanotechnology, quantum processing, biotechnology, Internet of Things (IoT), self-propelled machine, etc. And it is better to give a brief description about it[22].

I. The Fourth Industrial Revolution

The core of Industry 4.0 implementation, or the fourth industrial revolution, is the connection of the physical world at the implementation level with the cyber world. The main components of implementation in this idea are Cyber-Physical Systems. If the prospects of the Fourth Industrial Revolution are realized, in the not-too-distant future artificial intelligence, manpower, machinery, manufacturing units, logistics and products will communicate and cooperate directly with each other.

This revolution with fundamental changes in the three main areas of physical, biological and digital has the ability to achieve dramatic alterations. In fact, these three areas, in addition to each of them encountering serious changes alone, in interaction with each other, have led to deeper alterations, which are referred to as "Disruptive Technologies".

Accordingly, in the physical realm, four "Disruptive Technologies" have been made by the Fourth Industrial Revolution and will normally be developed: 1- self-propelled machines 2- 3Dprinters 3-Advanced Robotics 4-Production of new materials.

In the digital realm, too, there will be three major "Disruptive Technologies": 1-IoT 2- Block chain 3-Sharing Economy.

In the field of biology, “Disruptive Technologies” will be developed that include 1- genetic sequencing and 2- artificial biology and effective transmission[23].

II. Concerned about the security risks of forming a Salafi jihadist government in the era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Several important concerns may arise with the formation of this government, which will be explained briefly.

a. Official and unofficial financial and technological resources

The cost of investing in the Fourth Industrial Revolution requires huge sums of money. Under international trade law, in this field, many hardware and software operators prohibit the sale of these items to suspicious customers. However, with the establishment of a government with the mentioned features and the sponsors whose characteristics were described, in fact, both the financial cost of these cases will be provided and the purchase of goods and services from global companies will be possible. Due to the Haqqani Network's proximity to the Taliban government and its proximity to al-Qaeda, it is not really clear whether these facilities will be provided to these groups or will not (At least the Haqqani network seems to benefit from them.)?

China's cooperation with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, given that the country itself is one of the main hubs of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and is in close competition with the United States, can create serious and far more dangerous risks to the region and the world, especially to the West and It could even turn Afghanistan into a laboratory for various Chinese products.

b. Academic education

Although Afghan universities do not rank well in the world rankings, due to the extensive investments in education made by the United Nations, NATO and neighboring countries, they have made great technical and educational progress. Taking over the command of education in the hands of a Salafi-jihadist government can turn this country into a technical and technological training center for terrorist groups, and on the other hand, it can attract professors and students who are interested in the Salafi jihadist approach worldwide. Accordingly, as a result, every student and graduate can become a potential threat to the world. On the other hand, the lack of commitment and adherence to scientific ethics and international law in this area by the government of the Islamic Emirate and its allies can even reconstruct the humanitarian crises of the Hitler and Stalinist eras.

c. Military and paramilitary products

If the above two things are realized, it will be possible to mass-produce and industrialize technologies that can be said to be one of the greatest dangers to world order and even human life. Just as the international community was once concerned about the possibility of authoritarian regimes and terrorist groups gaining access to nuclear weapons, today it must be even more concerned about the widespread access of these groups to the military and paramilitary facilities associated with the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In this regard, some of these tools and structures will be explained and the ideas of its terrorist use will be mentioned.

1- Remotely guided robots (remote control robots)

This set includes many robots, including drones, remotely controlled vehicles, reconnaissance robots, and etc. These facilities could be combined with ideas such as bomb-carrying drones, remote-controlled suicide vehicles, and tiny reconnaissance and spy robots.

2- Robots based on artificial intelligence

The cases mentioned in the previous topic are technologies whose effects can be seen in the last decade, but robots based on artificial intelligence are a dramatic change that must be addressed separately. Today it is quite possible to design a driverless car which For example, it is planned in such a way that it has the duty to collide with anyone who is in military uniform and kill them. Eventually it blows up itself! Or assassination micro-drones that carry very small amounts of explosives; they assassinate people by recognizing their faces and have a speed tens of times faster than humans or war robots that can intelligently perform the tasks of several trained soldiers in a specific area (For instance, throwing grenades, sniping, defusing mines, etc.) [24]and it can create a full-fledged army for terrorist groups whose population is basically incomparable to the armies of countries.

3- Cyborg Army

Cyborg means to combine the two spheres of Cybernetic and Organism and create a creature with natural and technological components[25]. The original purpose of this science in the 1960s was to help the disabled and sick (such as people with paralysis) to compensate for their physical disabilities but over time, given the potential for expanding the capabilities of healthy people, attention to this aspect has expanded, and even the US government's attempt to create a cyborg army has yielded far-reaching results (Of course, this program is accompanied by opposition from civil society due to ethical issues and is officially in detention(. With the advancement of technology and secret projects of different countries, the possibility of spreading this style of militarism is increasing.

4- Cyber attack

With the expansion of dependence of various industries, especially industries related to the security of countries to the cyber structure, the risk of war due to Cyber attacks are climbing day by day. When there are no targeted conflicts and only they seek "more damage;" Terrorist hackers can create an irreparable crisis for the world by polluting drinking water, disrupting nuclear power plants, and etc.( Like the 9/11 attacks, in which no assassination attempt was made; rather, the executors' goal was to create a high number of casualties).

III. Dangers and risks of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" due to the developments of the Fourth Industrial Revolution

These technologies, and dozens of others (Such as the possibility of producing viruses and biological weapons for internal genocides or foreign conflicts, producing maps that can be used for 3D printers and providing them to allied terrorist groups, etc.), as long as they are in the hands of accountable countries, may be forced to restrict and not use them by treaty and public pressure but when these facilities become available to an extremist government such as the Islamic Emirate, which at least its allies believe have regional and global responsibilities, it will be much more difficult to confront and prevent. Therefore, a plan must be made to confront this unbridled power before it occurs. On the other hand, the possibility of turning Afghanistan into a laboratory of the aforementioned by the Technological countries that support them, for global conflicts is itself a possibility that should not be overlooked. Of course, it needs to be re-emphasized that now all these dangers are also present by the terrorist groups allied with the Islamic Emirate. But when the legitimacy and money of a government are completely at their disposal and one of the goals and ethics of its allies have been the formation of a world government which is part of their duties and the opponents of its idea do not consider it worthy of life, the risk will increase and its scope will expand. With regard to this issue, the present article tries to warn of these cases and invites researchers and more widely international community to think and find a solution to prevent this catastrophe but it can be a gateway to that subject.

C. Conclusions and suggestions

In this study, the roots of the "Afghan Taliban" movement and its commonalities with two groups affiliated, namely "Haqqani Network" and "Al-Qaeda" were first discussed that all three are influenced by the "Salafi jihadist" current and the teachings of "Dar al-Ulum Deobandi" and operate in the structure of the "Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan" formally or informally. They are three groups which are on different lists of terrorist groups. Then, the positive effects of the last twenty years on the development of science, especially technical and experimental sciences in Afghanistan were discussed and it was emphasized how the access of these groups to this important treasure, along with the legal and illegal revenues of a country, could turn into a regional and global security crisis. The issue becomes even more important when China, as the world's technology hub, competes with the West and is now one of the Taliban's most important supporters. Some groups affiliated with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan have also defined regional or international responsibilities and the formation and recognition of this government can be a call for all Islamic, Salafi or anti-Western terrorist groups. With the accelerating trend of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (including artificial intelligence, etc.) and its inextricable link with the military structure, the aforementioned risks are doubling.

With products such as drones and vehicles with remote control, drones and vehicles based on artificial intelligence, new weapons, cyber warfare, military cyborgs, biological weapons, etc., the creation of a government based on terrorist groups can become a nightmare for everyone, even its supporters.

In this regard, this study calls on all people of the world to take seriously this threat to world security and to confront it with a strong alliance. Some suggestions will be mentioned for this issue:

I. The international community must prevent the establishment and normalization of the situation of this government before accepting the rules of human rights by this government.

II. Sanction any military purchases, military raw materials or its related technologies before fully monitoring the military activities of this structure.

III. The international community must seriously strengthen the opposition of this self-proclaimed government (such as panjshir resistance, etc.)

IV. The United Nations and other international organizations must have the right to make intrusive visits to all parts of the country.

V. Finally, China must take responsibility for supporting this government and take on the task of controlling it.

References

Algorithms and Terrorism: The Malicious Use of Artificial Intelligence for Terrorist Purposes A Joint Report by UNICRI and UNCCT New York - May 13, 2021

Countering Terrorism Online with Artificial Intelligence An Overview for Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism Agencies in South Asia and South-East Asia, New York - June 30, 2021

D. S. Halacy. 1965. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. p. 7.

Meijer, Roel (2007). "Yūsuf al-'Uyairī and the Making of a Revolutionary Salafi Praxis". Die Welt des Islams. Brill Academic Publishers. 47 (3): 422–459. Retrieved 2014-07-28.

Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8018-9055-0.

New York times, Afghan Assaults Signal Evolution of a Militant Foe, Eric Schmitt, Alissa J. Rubin, April 16, 2012

Shahin, Emad el-Din (2014). "Salafīyah". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online

The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab, Penguin Books Limited, 2017

Persian/Arabic References

Baumgarten, Reinhard,A brief look at the differences and commonalities of the Taliban, ISIS and al-Qaeda, Deutsche Welle, 2021.08.20

Ibrahim, Fouad, Shiites in the Modern Arab World, translated by Reza Simber, Tehran: published by Ministry of Science Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies, p. 35.

Muslim Brotherhood: Rejecting the State of Religion for Their Anti-Islam February 9, 2011, Official Website of the Muslim Brotherhood

Shakoori, Abolfazl, Abbas Aboutalebi, The Role of Deobandieh Religious Schools in the Formation of Religious Extremism (Case Study; Intellectual Foundations of the Taliban Movement), Journal of International Cultural Relations Studies, pp. 109-130, Volume 4, Number 8, Fall 2018

Shiroodi, Mohammad Sajjad, Majid Hemmati, Ebrahim Siahpoosh, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Terrorist Attacks by Takfiri Groups, Southwest Asia Studies Quarterly, No. 9, Spring 2020, pp. 28-1.

* PhD candidate in public law, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Email: m.r.20001@gmail.com

** Graduate of theology, Semnan University, Email: somayyeh.mottaghi@gmail.com

1 Wisnewski, J. Jeremy, ed. (2008). Torture, Terrorism, and the Use of Violence (also available as Review Journal of Political Philosophy Volume 6, Issue Number 1). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 175

[2] In five lists Including in the list of terrorist groups in Japan and Canada

[3]In five lists including in the list of terrorist groups in UN, USA and UK

[4]In four lists including in the list of terrorist groups in USA, UK and Canada

[5]In seventeen lists including in the list of terrorist groups in UN, EU and USA

[6]those who saw the Prophet of Islam and accepted the religion of Islam during her lifetime

[7]To those who did not coincide with the life of the Prophet but saw his companions and during their lifetime accepted the religion of Islam, and died in faith

[8]To those who did not coincide with the life of the Prophet and his companions but saw the followers and learned the religion of Islam from the followers

[9] Shahin, Emad el-Din (2014). "Salafīyah". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online

[10]In Islam, bidʻah refers to innovation in religious matters. Linguistically, the term means "innovation, novelty, heretical doctrine, heresy".

[11] Shahin, Emad el-Din (2014). "Salafīyah". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford Islamic Studies Online.

[12] Ibrahim, Fouad, Shiites in the Modern Arab World, translated by Reza Simber, Tehran: published by Ministry of Science Research Institute for Cultural and Social Studies, p. 35.

[13] Muslim Brotherhood: Rejecting the State of Religion for Their Anti-Islam February 9, 2011, Official Website of the Muslim Brotherhood

[14] Meijer, Roel (2007). "Yūsuf al-'Uyairī and the Making of a Revolutionary Salafi Praxis". Die Welt des Islams. Brill Academic Publishers. 47 (3): 422–459. Retrieved 2014-07-28.

[15] Shakoori, Abolfazl, Abbas Aboutalebi, The Role of Deobandieh Religious Schools in the Formation of Religious Extremism (Case Study; Intellectual Foundations of the Taliban Movement), Journal of International Cultural Relations Studies, pp. 109-130, Volume 4, Number 8, Fall 2018

[16] New York times, Afghan Assaults Signal Evolution of a Militant Foe, Eric Schmitt, Alissa J. Rubin, April 16, 2012

[17] Moghadam, Assaf (2008). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8018-9055-0.

[18] Baumgarten, Reinhard,A brief look at the differences and commonalities of the Taliban, ISIS and al-Qaeda, Deutsche Welle, 2021.08.20

[19] Shakoori, Abolfazl, Abbas Aboutalebi, The Role of Deobandieh Religious Schools in the Formation of Religious Extremism (Case Study; Intellectual Foundations of the Taliban Movement), Journal of International Cultural Relations Studies, pp. 109-130, Volume 4, Number 8, Fall 2018

[20]Baumgarten, Reinhard,A brief look at the differences and commonalities of the Taliban, ISIS and al-Qaeda, Deutsche Welle, 2021.08.20

[21]Klaus Schwab ,Born March 30, 1938, German economist, entrepreneur, philanthropist and university professor, founder and chairman of the World Economic Forum (Davos Summit)

[22] The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab, Penguin Books Limited, 2017

[23] The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Klaus Schwab, Penguin Books Limited, 2017

[24] Shiroodi, , Mohammad Sajjad, Majid Hemmati, Ebrahim Siahpoosh, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Terrorist Attacks by Takfiri Groups, Southwest Asia Studies Quarterly, , No. 9, Spring 2020, pp. 28-1.

[25] D. S. Halacy. 1965. Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. p. 7.